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Acronym for International Standards Organisation.

Also often used as a synonym for CDROM image files, because they usually have an .iso extension, harkening back to the ISO 9660 standard which specifies the CDROM FileSystem.

Some well-known (and some less well-known but commonly encountered) ISO standards include:

ISO 3166:

Short names and two-letter codes for countries. Used among others for the 2 letter ccTLD names such as .nz, .uk or .de. You might be able to find the list on a GNU/Linux system in /usr/share/zoneinfo/

There was a minor kerfuffle in 2004(?) when some ISO staffer proposed charging royalties to anyone using the 2-letter codes in their business, although those plans were quickly dropped following the predictable outcry.

ISO 8859:

A list of 8-bit character encodings extending ASCII for various European alphabets.

There are several ISO 8859 related ManPages; their wiki copies need some work, since there are duplicates...

ISO 9001:
Business processes. The important thing to remember about ISO9001 is that it's perfectly OK for an ISO9001 shop to fling completed motherboards frisbee style across the warehouse so that it hits the wall and lands in the pile for packaging/shipping as long as that is the written procedure.AsSeenOnSlashdot
ISO 9660:
The CDROM FileSystem. iso is also usually the extension used for CDROM images.
ISO 10646:
Essentially Unicode. See A short overview of ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode, utf8(7) and UnicodeNotes for more information.

See also: TokyoDeclaration