Note that these are all merely graphical front-ends that call cdrecord to do the actual writing, so you will need to make sure that cdrecord works (see the following sections for help with this).
Here are a few ways of finding out your drive information.
Device type : Removable CD-ROM Version : 0 Response Format: 1 Vendor_info : 'BENQ ' Identifikation : 'DVD DD DW1650 ' Revision : 'BCDC' Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD-R/DVD-RW.
scsibus1: 1,0,0 100) 'BENQ ' 'DVD DD DW1650 ' 'BCDC' Removable CD-ROM
[ 30.164585] hdc: BENQ DVD DD DW1650, ATAPI CD/DVD-ROM drive [ 30.566013] hdc: ATAPI 48X DVD-ROM DVD-R CD-R/RW drive, 2048kB Cache, UDMA(33) [ 30.566021] Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
At least in Debian Woody, the file /etc/default/cdrecord stores settings about your CD writer(s). The last section which maps the device settings to the drive name must be Tab separated. Spaces won't work.
Make sure that your user has permission to any required device files and executable programs. In Debian, the files have the appropriate permissions for people in the cdrom group. If you add yourself to the group you will have to log out and back in for that to take effect.
Recent 2.4 kernels, and all 2.6 kernels, have support for cdwriting via ATAPI. Historically, the cdrecord program only worked over SCSI and Linux users needed SCSI emulation. There was argument over whether this was the kernel's fault or cdrecord's fault. See Linus's take and the author's take on this as well as an explaination of both points of view on Slashdot.
Make sure you have the ATAPI CDROM driver compiled in or as a module in your system. Probably best if you disable ide-scsi emulation while you're at it. (That is, make sure no drives are told to use the SCSI emulation on boot. Either remove ide-scsi support from your Kernel, or check your BootLoader's configuration (either LILO or GRUB) to make sure it doesn't pass any hdx=ide-scsi options to the kernel.)
Upgrade cdrecord to the latest versions (2.0.x and above all appear to support this).
Get the latest version of whatever graphical frontend you prefer, and make sure they grok the ATAPI interface. If they don't, email the author requesting the feature and explain why you're now using a different program instead of theirs :)
Now find your CDR with cdrecord dev=ATA: -scanbus. Note the dev=ATA: bit. (Warning: case matters - "ATA" works, "ata" does not.)
Cdrecord-Clone 2.01a19 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2003 Jörg Schilling scsidev: 'ATA:' devname: 'ATA' scsibus: -1 target: -1 lun: -1 Warning: Using ATA Packet interface. Warning: The related libscg interface code is in pre alpha. Warning: There may be fatal problems. Using libscg version 'schily-0.7' scsibus0: 0,0,0 0) * cdrecord: Warning: controller returns wrong size for CD capabilities page. 0,1,0 1) ' ' 'ATAPI CDROM 52X ' '120N' Removable CD-ROM 0,2,0 2) * .... scsibus1: 1,0,0 100) 'CDWRITER' 'IDE4012 ' '409E' Removable CD-ROM 1,1,0 101) * 1,2,0 102) * ...
$ cdrecord dev=ATAPI: -scanbus Warning: Using ATA Packet interface. Warning: The related Linux kernel interface code seems to be unmaintained. Warning: There is absolutely NO DMA, operations thus are slow. 0,1,0 1) 'CyberDrv' 'CB511D Combo ' '120A' Removable CD-ROM ... $ cdrecord dev=ATA: -scanbus scsidev: 'ATA:' devname: 'ATA' scsibus: -1 target: -1 lun: -1 Warning: Using badly designed ATAPI via /dev/hd* interface. Linux sg driver version: 3.5.27 1,1,0 101) 'CyberDrv' 'CB511D Combo ' '120A' Removable CD-ROM ...
ATA: appears to be the preferred driver, and ATAPI: seems to be obsolete. If you do not find your drive with one, though, try the other. The ATA driver supports DMA.
You can now burn CDs just as you could before, except use the device names as detailed above (ie, dev=ATA:1,0,0).
CDR_DEVICE=mycdwriter ... mycdwriter= ATA:1,0,0 -1 -1 ""
(and remember to use tabs for separation, and not spaces.)
CDR_DEVICE=cdrw cdrw= /dev/hdc -1 -1 ""
cdrecord will then use /dev/hdc by default. Then mkisofs -r directory | sudo cdrecord - will burn a CD of directory's contents.
deb http://www.backports.org/debian woody cdrdao deb http://www.backports.org/debian woody cdrtools
0,0,0 0) 'HL-DT-ST' 'CD-RW GCE-8525B ' '1.01' Removable CD-ROM
Not tried an audio CD yet.
Note: Recent versions of cdrecord(1) combined with a recent LinuxKernel can use native IDE drivers for IDE CD writers, so this whole mumbo jumbo is not necessary. See the notes back up the page. This is left here for anyone using an older distro or kernel.
See our SCSI-IDENotes page for notes on setting up ide-scsi emulation.
The main reason might be that you don't have to muck around with ide-scsi emulation and so on. However, the bigger reason is that it appears that ide-scsi has a major bug which may never be fixed, so if you want CD writing to work under 2.6 you'll want to use the ATAPI interface. Another reason is that it's such a PITA to change between using ide-scsi and ide-cd if you want to go from, say, writing a CD to playing a DVD, and you have one of those nifty combo CDR/DVD drives.
Now find your CDR with cdrecord -scanbus, which returns something like
Cdrecord 2.01a16 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) (C) 1995-2003 Jörg Schilling Linux sg driver version: 3.5.28 Using libscg version 'schily-0.7' scsibus0: 0,0,0 0) 'HP ' 'CD-Writer+ 9100 ' '1.0c' Removable CDR 0,1,0 1) * 0,2,0 2) * ....
This means your CDR is at 0,0,0 just like on most single-drive machines with IDE CD writers.
The CD standard supports "floppy emulation", great for getting those old discs backed up and loading at 10× the speed. If you have a floppy image you've downloaded, call it boot.img (or change the command line). If you have a 1.44Mb floppy, run dd if=/dev/fd0 of=boot.img bs=10k count=144. Put boot.img in an otherwise empty directory, and from that directory run mkisofs -b boot.img -c boot.catalog . | cdrecord -v .
mkisofs will generate the boot.catalog file for you. Add -dummy to cdrecord if you want a test run first. If cdrecord doesn't know about your cdr then you'll need to add dev=x,y,z and possibly speed=n. If you just want to create the ISO image then you can use -o boot.iso with mkisofs instead of piping it to cdrecord. The "." at the end of mkisofs is still required though.
/usr/share/doc/mkisofs/README.eltorrito explains how to create bootable CDs.
The command you want to use is something like cdrecord dev=/dev/cdwriter abc.iso where you substitute the device name of your CD writer and file you downloaded.
cdrecord: Operation not permitted. WARNING: Cannot set RR-scheduler cdrecord: Permission denied. WARNING: Cannot set priority using setpriority(). cdrecord: WARNING: This causes a high risk for buffer underruns.
Basically you can still burn the CD but would recommend you don't do other things at the same time that hog CPU or else you may burn a coaster.