Some intertesting facts about Scheme can be found in the paper The Evolution of Lisp. For instance, Scheme was originally named "Schemer", but because of the 6-character limitation of file names in the operating system ITS that was being used, (this was 1975 after all) it was truncated to Scheme and "the name stuck." Scheme was originally a toy implementation of ideas published earlier by someone called Carl Hewitt; it was written as "an attempt by Gerald Jay Sussman and Steele during Autumn 1975 to explicate for themselves some aspects of Carl Hewitt's theory of actors as a model of computation."
The specification for the scheme language is shorter than the index to the specification of CommonLISP, which is a pretty good reflection on their relative sizes.
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