A program which is already compiled into binary form. Some OperatingSystems only distribute Binary executables of their applications and OperatingSystem. Linux and the BSD family distribute their SourceCode as well as their binary executables are are held in great esteem for this.

Confusion arises when your Compiler targets a VirtualMachine or other intermediate code. The common example is a Java class file. These aren't BinaryExecutables (because they're not directly executable), but they are compiled, and definitely in a Binary format, and you can execute the code with the help of the VirtualMachine.

See also a.out, COFF and ELF.