montage - create a composite image by combining several separate images


montage [__ ''options'' __...? file [[__ ''options'' __...? file ...] output_file


montage creates a composite image by combining several separate images. The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

The composite image is constructed in the following manner. First, each image specified on the command line, except for the last, is scaled to fit the maximum tile size. The maximum tile size by default is 120x120. It can be modified with the -geometry command line argument or X resource. See Options for more information on command line arguments. See __X(1)?__ for more information on X resources. Note that the maximum tile size need not be a square.

Next the composite image is initialized with the color specified by the -background command line argument or X resource. The width and height of the composite image is determined by the title specified, the maximum tile size, the number of tiles per row, the tile border width and height, the image border width, and the label height. The number of tiles per row specifies how many images are to appear in each row of the composite image. The default is to have 5 tiles in each row and 4 tiles in each column of the composite. A specific value is specified with -tile. The tile border width and height, and the image border width defaults to the value of the X resource -borderwidth. It can be changed with the -borderwidth or -geometry command line argument or X resource. The label height is determined by the font you specify with the -font command line argument or X resource. If you do not specify a font, a font is chosen that allows the name of the image to fit the maximum width of a tiled area. The label colors is determined by the -background and -fill command line argument or X resource. Note, that if the background and pen colors are the same, labels will not appear.

Initially, the composite image title is placed at the top if one is specified (refer to -fill). Next, each image is set onto the composite image, surrounded by its border color, with its name centered just below it. The individual images are left-justified within the width of the tiled area. The order of the images is the same as they appear on the command line unless the images have a scene keyword. If a scene number is specified in each image, then the images are tiled onto the composite in the order of their scene number. Finally, the last argument on the command line is the name assigned to the composite image. By default, the image is written in the MIFF format and can be viewed or printed with display(1).

Note, that if the number of tiles exceeds the default number of 20 (5 per row, 4 per column), more than one composite image is created. To ensure a single image is produced, use -tile to increase the number of tiles to meet or exceed the number of input images.

Finally, to create one or more empty spaces in the sequence of tiles, use the image format.

Note, a composite MIFF image displayed to an X server with display behaves differently than other images. You can think of the composite as a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the composite and press a button to display it. See __display(1)? and miff(5)?__


To create a montage of a cockatoo, a parrot, and a hummingbird and write it to a file called birds, use:

montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff hummingbird.miff birds.miff

To tile several bird images so that they are at most 256 pixels in width and 192 pixels in height, surrounded by a red border, and separated by 10 pixels of background color, use:

montage -geometry 256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red birds.* montage.miff

To create an unlabeled parrot image, 640 by 480 pixels, and surrounded by a border of black, use:

montage -geometry 640x480 -bordercolor black -label

To create an image of an eagle with a textured background, use:

montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png

To join several GIF images together without any extraneous graphics (e.g. no label, no shadowing, no surrounding tile frame), use:

montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1 -geometry 50x50+0+0

  • .png joined.png


Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the group of images following it, until the group is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. For example, to make a montage of three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with an unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2 -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff

For a more detailed description of each option, see !ImageMagick(1).


join images into a single multi-image file


the background color


blur the image with a gaussian operator


the border color


the border width


megabytes of memory available to the pixel cache


remove pixels from the interior of an image


preferred number of colors in the image


the type of colorspace


annotate an image with a comment


the type of image composition


the type of image compression


preferred size and location of the cropped image


enable debug printout


vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image


depth of the image


specifies the X server to contact


GIF disposal method


apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image


annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives


specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image


color to use when filling a graphic primitive


use this type of filter when resizing an image


use this font when annotating the image with text


surround the image with an ornamental border


level of gamma correction


preferred size and location of the Image window.


direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image.


print usage instructions


the type of interlacing scheme


assign a label to an image


store matte channel if the image has one


specify the matte color


mode of operation


transform the image to black and white


NOOP (no option)


size and location of an image canvas


specify the pen color for drawing operations


pointsize of the Postscript, OPTION1, or !TrueType font


JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level


resize and locate an image


apply Paeth image rotation to the image


sampling factors used by JPEG encoder.


range of image scene numbers to read


shadow the montage


sharpen the image


width and height of the image


color to use when stroking a graphic primitive


set the stroke width


name of texture to tile onto the image background


layout of images [''montage''?


assign title to displayed image

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