Acronym for National Center for Supercomputing Applications
A scientific research center built to create, use, and transfer information technologies and advanced computing and communication tools.
Most famous for the development of the WorldWideWeb browser (called NCSA Mosaic), the NCSA focuses on the areas of science, engineering, education, and business.
They also wrote NCSA telnet for DOS and Mac way back when XT's and 128K Mac's were state-of-the-art. It was a great little client with an inbult single-connection FTP server which would easily fit onto a bootable 360K floppy.