The scanf family of functions scans input according to a format as described below. This format may contain conversion specifiers; the results from such conversions, if any, are stored through the pointer arguments. The scanf function reads input from the standard input stream stdin, fscanf reads input from the stream pointer stream, and sscanf reads its input from the character string pointed to by str.
The vfscanf function is analogous to vfprintf(3) and reads input from the stream pointer stream using a variable argument list of pointers (see stdarg(3). The vscanf function scans a variable argument list from the standard input and the vsscanf function scans it from a string; these are analogous to the vprintf and vsprintf functions respectively.
Following the % character introducing a conversion there may be a number of flag characters, as follows:
Suppresses assignment. The conversion that follows occurs as usual, but no pointer is used; the result of the conversion is simply discarded.
Indicates that the conversion will be s, the needed memory space for the string will be malloc'ed and the pointer to it will be assigned to the char pointer variable, which does not have to be initialised before. This flag does not exist in ANSI C.
Indicates that the conversion will be one of dioux or n and the next pointer is a pointer to a short int (rather than int).
Indicates either that the conversion will be one of dioux or n and the next pointer is a pointer to a long int (rather than int), or that the conversion will be one of efg and the next pointer is a pointer to double (rather than float). Specifying two l flags is equivalent to the L flag.
Indicates that the conversion will be either efg and the next pointer is a pointer to long double or the conversion will be dioux and the next pointer is a pointer to long long. (Note that long long is not an ANSI C type. Any program using this will not be portable to all architectures).
equivalent to L. This flag does not exist in ANSI C.
In addition to these flags, there may be an optional maximum field width, expressed as a decimal integer, between the % and the conversion. If no width is given, a default of `infinity' is used (with one exception, below); otherwise at most this many characters are scanned in processing the conversion. Before conversion begins, most conversions skip white space; this white space is not counted against the field width.
The following conversions are available:
Matches a literal `%'. That is, `%%' in the format string matches a single input `%' character. No conversion is done, and assignment does not occur.
Matches an optionally signed decimal integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to int.
Equivalent to ld; this exists only for backwards compatibility. (Note: thus only in libc4. In libc5 and glibc the %D is silently ignored, causing old programs to fail mysteriously.)
Matches an optionally signed integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to int. The integer is read in base 16 if it begins with `0x' or `0X', in base 8 if it begins with `0', and in base 10 otherwise. Only characters that correspond to the base are used.
Matches an unsigned octal integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to unsigned int.
Matches an unsigned decimal integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to unsigned int.
Matches an unsigned hexadecimal integer; the next pointer must be a pointer to unsigned int.
Equivalent to x
Matches an optionally signed floating-point number; the next pointer must be a pointer to float.
Equivalent to f.
Equivalent to f.
Equivalent to f
Matches a sequence of non-white-space characters; the next pointer must be a pointer to char, and the array must be large enough to accept all the sequence and the terminating NUL character. The input string stops at white space or at the maximum field width, whichever occurs first.
Matches a sequence of width count characters (default 1); the next pointer must be a pointer to char, and there must be enough room for all the characters (no terminating NUL is added). The usual skip of leading white space is suppressed. To skip white space first, use an explicit space in the format.
Matches a nonempty sequence of characters from the specified set of accepted characters; the next pointer must be a pointer to char, and there must be enough room for all the characters in the string, plus a terminating NUL character. The usual skip of leading white space is suppressed. The string is to be made up of characters in (or not in) a particular set; the set is defined by the characters between the open bracket character. The set excludes those characters if the first character after the open bracket is a circumflex ^. To include a close bracket in the set, make it the first character after the open bracket or the circumflex; any other position will end the set. The hyphen character - is also special; when placed between two other characters, it adds all intervening characters to the set. To include a hyphen, make it the last character before the final close bracket. For instance, `[^?0-9-]' means the set `everything except close bracket, zero through nine, and hyphen'. The string ends with the appearance of a character not in the (or, with a circumflex, in) set or when the field width runs out.
Matches a pointer value (as printed by `%p' in printf(3); the next pointer must be a pointer to void.
The functions fscanf, scanf, and sscanf conform to ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C'').
The q flag is the BSD 4.4 notation for long long, while ll or the usage of L in integer conversions is the GNU notation.
All functions are fully ANSI X3.159-1989 conformant, but provide the additional flags q and a as well as an additional behaviour of the L and l flags. The latter may be considered to be a bug, as it changes the behaviour of flags defined in ANSI X3.159-1989.
Some combinations of flags defined by ANSI C are not making sense in ANSI C (e.g. %Ld). While they may have a well-defined behaviour on Linux, this need not to be so on other architectures. Therefore it usually is better to use flags that are not defined by ANSI C at all, i.e. use q instead of L in combination with diouxX conversions or ll.
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