rmmod - unload loadable modules


rmmod [ -aehrsvV? module ...


rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel.

rmmod tries to unload a set of modules from the kernel, with the restriction that they are not in use and that they are not referred to by other modules.

If more than one module is named on the command line, the modules will be removed in the given order. This supports unloading of stacked modules.

With the option '-r', a recursive removal of modules will be attempted. This means that if a top module in a stack is named on the command line, all modules that are used by this module will be removed as well, if possible.


-a, --all

Do autoclean: tag unused modules as

-e, --persist

Save persistent data for the named modules, without unloading any modules. If no module names are specified then data is saved for all modules that have persistent data. Data is only saved if both the kernel and modutils support persistent data and /proc/ksyms contains an entry __insmod_modulename_Ppersistent_filename

-h, --help

Display a summary of options and immediately exit.

-r, --stacks

Remove a module stack.

-s, --syslog

Output everything to syslog(3) instead of the terminal.

-v, --verbose

Be verbose.

-V, --version

Print the version of modutils.


If a module contains persistent data (see insmod(8) and modules.conf(5)) then removing the module always writes the persistent data to the filename in the insmod _P symbol entry. You can also save the persistent data at any time by rmmod -e__, this will not unload any modules.

When the persistent data is written to file, it is preceded by a generated comment line,

  1. % kernel_version timestamp

Generated comment lines start with '#%', all generated comments are stripped from the existing file, other comments are preserved. The saved data values are written to the file, preserving the existing order of comments and assignments. New values are added at the end of the file. If the file contains values that do not exist in the module then these values are preserved but are preceded by a generated comment warning that they are not being used. The latter operation allows a user to switch between kernels without losing persistent data and without getting any error messages.

Note: Comments are only supported when the first non-space character on a line is '#'. Any non-blank lines that do not start with '#' are module options, one per line. The option lines have leading spaces removed, the remainder of the line is passed to insmod as an option, including any trailing characters.


insmod(8), lsmod(8), ksyms(8), modprobe(8).


rmmod [__-V__? should display version information and then exit immediately. Instead, it prints the version information and behaves as if no options were given.


Module support was first conceived by Anonymous Initial Linux version by Bas Laarhoven Version 0.99.14 by Jon Tombs Extended by Bjorn Ekwall Updated for 2.1.17 by Richard Henderson Updated for 2.2.2 by by Bjorn Ekwall Updated for modutils 2.3.20 by by Keith Owens Persistent data for modutils 2.3.22 by by Keith Owens

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