argv is an array of argument strings passed to the new program. envp is an array of strings, conventionally of the form key=value, which are passed as environment to the new program. Both, argv and envp must be terminated by a null pointer. The argument vector and environment can be accessed by the called program's main function, when it is defined as int main(int argc, char *argv[?, char *envp[?).
execve() does not return on success, and the text, data, bss, and stack of the calling process are overwritten by that of the program loaded. The program invoked inherits the calling process's PID, and any open file descriptors that are not set to close on exec. Signals pending on the calling process are cleared. Any signals set to be caught by the calling process are reset to their default behaviour. The SIGCHLD signal (when set to SIG_IGN?) may or may not be reset to SIG_DFL.
If the set-uid bit is set on the program file pointed to by filename the effective user ID of the calling process is changed to that of the owner of the program file. Similarly, when the set-gid bit of the program file is set the effective group ID of the calling process is set to the group of the program file.
If the executable is an a.out dynamically-linked binary executable containing shared-library stubs, the Linux dynamic linker ld.so(8) is called at the start of execution to bring needed shared libraries into core and link the executable with them.
If the executable is a dynamically-linked ELF executable, the interpreter named in the PT_INTERP segment is used to load the needed shared libraries. This interpreter is typically /lib/ld-linux.so.1 for binaries linked with the Linux libc version 5, or /lib/ld-linux.so.2 for binaries linked with the GNU libc version 2. See ld.so(8)
SVr4, SVID, X/OPEN, BSD 4.3. POSIX does not document the #! behavior but is otherwise compatible. SVr4 documents additional error conditions EAGAIN, EINTR, ELIBACC?, ENOLINK, EMULTIHOP; POSIX does not document ETXTBSY, EPERM, EFAULT, ELOOP, EIO, ENFILE, EMFILE, EINVAL, EISDIR or ELIBBAD? error conditions.
SUID and SGID processes can not be ptrace(2)d.
Linux ignores the SUID and SGID bits on scripts.
The result of mounting a filesystem nosuid vary between Linux kernel versions: some will refuse execution of SUID/SGID executables when this would give the user powers she did not have already (and return EPERM), some will just ignore the SUID/SGID bits and exec successfully.
A maximum line length of 127 characters is allowed for the first line in a #! executable shell script.