dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to !PostScript


dvips [ ''options''? file[.dvi?


THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE! See the Texinfo documentation instead. You can read it either in Emacs or with the standalone info program which comes with the GNU texinfo distribution as*.tar.gz.

The program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi? produced by TeX (or by some other processor such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to !PostScript, normally sending the result directly to the (laser)printer. The DVI file may be specified without the .dvi extension. Fonts used may either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files, or a `virtual' combination of both. If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips will automatically invoke METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

For more information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should be installed somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through the standard Info tree.



Conserve memory by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only loading those characters actually used. Generally only useful on machines with a very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.


Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

-b num

Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using the #numcopies option. This can be useful in conjunction with a header file setting bop-hook to do color separations or other neat tricks.


Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

-c num

Generate num copies of every page. Default is 1. (For collated copies, see the -C option below.)

-C num

Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the !PostScript file). Slower than the -c option, but easier on the hands, and faster than resubmitting the same !PostScript file multiple times.

-d num

Set the debug flags. This is intended only for emergencies or for unusual fact-finding expeditions; it will work only if dvips has been compiled with the DEBUG option. If nonzero, prints additional information on standard output. The number is taken as a set of independent bits. The meaning of each bit follows. 1=specials; 2=paths; 4=fonts; 8=pages; 16=headers; 32=font compression; 64=files; 128=memory; 256=Kpathsea stat(2) calls; 512=Kpathsea hash table lookups; 1024=Kpathsea path element expansion; 2048=Kpathsea searches. To trace everything having to do with file searching and opening, use 3650 (2048 + 1024 + 512

  • 64 + 2). To track all classes, you can use `-1' (output is

extremely voluminous).

-D num

Set the resolution in dpi (dots per inch) to num. This affects the choice of bitmap fonts that are loaded and also the positioning of letters in resident !PostScript fonts. Must be between 10 and 10000. This affects both the horizontal and vertical resolution. If a high resolution (something greater than 400 dpi, say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

-e num

Make sure that each character is placed at most this many pixels from its `true' resolution-independent position on the page. The default value of this parameter is resolution dependent. Allowing individual characters to `drift' from their correctly rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true position at the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.


makes dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box. This only works on one-page files, and it only looks at marks made by characters and rules, not by any included graphics. In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the tfm file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may confuse it. In addition, the bounding box might be a bit too loose if the character glyph has significant left or right side bearings. Nonetheless, this option works well for creating small EPSF files for equations or tables or the like. (Note, of course, that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus does not make very good EPSF files, especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great deal of care.)


Run as a filter. Read the .dvi file from standard input and write the !PostScript to standard output. The standard input must be seekable, so it cannot be a pipe. If you must use a pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a temporary file and then points dvips at this file. This option also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.


Causes Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very last character of the !PostScript file. This is useful when dvips is driving the printer directly instead of working through a spooler, as is common on extremely small systems. NOTE! DO NOT USE THIS OPTION!

-h name

Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the name is simply `-' suppress all header files from the output.) This header file gets added to the

PostScript userdict.


Make each section be a separate file. Under certain circumstances, dvips will split the document up into `sections' to be processed independently; this is most often done for memory reasons. Using this option tells dvips to place each section into a separate file; the new file names are created replacing the suffix of the supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number. This option is most often used in conjunction with the -S option which sets the maximum section length in pages. For instance, some phototypesetters cannot print more than ten or so consecutive pages before running out of steam; these options can be used to automatically split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.


Print crop marks. This option increases the paper size (which should be specified, either with a paper size special or with the -T option) by a half inch in each dimension. It translates each page by a quarter inch and draws cross-style crop marks. It is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size automatically.


This option causes comments in included !PostScript graphics, font files, and headers to be removed. This is sometimes necessary to get around bugs in spoolers or !PostScript post-processing programs. Specifically, the %%Page comments, when left in, often cause difficulties. Use of this flag can cause some included graphics to fail, since the !PostScript header macros from some software packages read portions of the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment. This option has been turned off by default because

PostScript previewers and spoolers have been getting


-l num

The last page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page in the document. If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any argument to the -p option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to compare with count0 values. Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.


Specify manual feed for printer.


Turns off the automatic font generation facility. If any fonts are missing, commands to generate the fonts are appended to the file missfont.log in the current directory; this file can then be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

-n num

At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.


Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try to interpret !PostScript comments in weird ways, or on some !PostScript printers. Old versions of

TranScript? in particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated


-o name

The output will be sent to file name If no file name is given, the default name is where the .dvi file was called file.dvi; if this option isn't given, any default in the configuration file is used. If the first character of the supplied output file name is an exclamation mark, then the remainder will be used as an argument to popen; thus, specifying !lpr as the output file will automatically queue the file for printing. When running subprograms, dvips sets the PRINTER and LPDEST environment variables to the printer name (if available), so no -P option is needed for lpr. This option also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.

-O offset

Move the origin by a certain amount. The offset is a comma-separated pair of dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syntax used in the papersize special). The origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one inch to the right from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount.

-p num

The first page printed will be the first one numbered num. Default is the first page in the document. If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any argument to the -l option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to compare with count0 values. Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

-pp pagelist

A comma-separated list of pages and ranges (a-b) may be given, which will be interpreted as count0 values. Pages not specified will not be printed. Multiple -pp options may be specified or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one -pp option.

-P printername

Sets up the output for the appropriate printer. This is implemented by reading in config.printername , which can then set the output pipe (as in, ''!lpr

  • Pprintername'' as well as the font paths and any other defaults for that printer only. Note that is read before config.printername In addition, another file called /.dvipsrc is searched for immediately after; this file is intended for user defaults. If no -P command is given, the environment variable PRINTER is checked. If that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration file exists, that configuration file is read in.


Run in quiet mode. Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report nothing but errors to standard error.


Stack pages in reverse order. Normally, page 1 will be printed first.


Run in secure mode. This means that ``backtick commands from a special{} or psffile{} macro in the (La)TeX source like special{psfile= or psffile[72 72 540 720?{ '' are not executed.


Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair. This causes the file to not be truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful if you are driving the printer directly and don't care too much about the portability of the output.

-S num

Set the maximum number of pages in each `section'. This option is most commonly used with the -i option; see that documentation above for more information.

-t papertype

This sets the paper type to papertype. The papertype should be defined in one of the configuration files, along with the appropriate code to select it. (Currently known types include letter, legal, ledger, a4, a3, ) You can also specify -t landscape, which rotates a document by 90 degrees. To rotate a document whose size is not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once for the page size, and once for landscape. The upper left corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed one inch from the left and one inch from the top. Use of this option is highly dependent on the configuration file. Note that executing the letter or a4 or other !PostScript operators cause the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print on certain printers, so the paper size should not execute such an operator if at all possible.

-T offset

Set the paper size to the given pair of dimensions. This option takes its arguments in the same style as -O. It overrides any paper size special in the dvi file.


Disable a !PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores the character metric information in the same string that is used to store the bitmap information. This is only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 !PostScript interpreter. It is caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on the bottom of each character. Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.


Download non-resident !PostScript fonts as bitmaps. This requires use of `gsftopk' or `pstopk' or some other such program(s) in order to generate the required bitmap fonts; these programs are supplied with dvips.

-x num

Set the magnification ratio to num /1000. Overrides the magnification specified in the .dvi file. Must be between 10 and 100000.

-X num

Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

-Y num

Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.


Causes bitmapped fonts to be compressed before they are downloaded, thereby reducing the size of the !PostScript font-downloading information. Especially useful at high resolutions or when very large fonts are used. Will slow down printing somewhat, especially on early 68000-based

PostScript printers.


mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi.


Dvipsk uses the same environment variables and algorithms for finding font files as TeX and its friends do. See the documentation for the Kpathsea library for details. (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

PRINTER: see above.


PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems



Tomas Rokicki

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