This manual page documents the GNU version of chmod. chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions.
A combination of the letters `ugoa' controls which users' access to the file will be changed: the user who owns it (u), other users in the file's group (g), other users not in the file's group (o), or all users (a). If none of these are given, the effect is as if `a' were given, but bits that are set in the umask are not affected.
The operator `+' causes the permissions selected to be added to the existing permissions of each file; `-' causes them to be removed; and `=' causes them to be the only permissions that the file has.
The letters `rwxXstugo' select the new permissions for the affected users: read (r), write (w), execute (or access for directories) (x), execute only if the file is a directory or already has execute permission for some user (X), set user or group ID on execution (s), sticky (t), the permissions that the user who owns the file currently has for it (u), the permissions that other users in the file's group have for it (g), and the permissions that other users not in the file's group have for it (o).
A numeric mode is from one to four octal digits (0-7), derived by adding up the bits with values 4, 2, and 1. Any omitted digits are assumed to be leading zeros. The first digit selects the set user ID (4) and set group ID (2) and sticky (1) attributes. The second digit selects permissions for the user who owns the file: read (4), write (2), and execute (1); the third selects permissions for other users in the file's group, with the same values; and the fourth for other users not in the file's group, with the same values.
When the sticky bit is set on a directory, files in that directory may only be unlinked or renamed by root or their owner. (Without the sticky bit, anyone able to write to the directory can delete or rename files.) The sticky bit is commonly found on directories, such as /tmp, which are world-writable.
Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.
like verbose but report only when a change is made
-f, --silent, --quiet
suppress most error messages
output a diagnostic for every file processed
use RFILE's mode instead of MODE values
change files and directories recursively
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
The full documentation for chmod is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and chmod programs are properly installed at your site, the command
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