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There is another low-level protocol, [ICMP], which is concerned with reporting issues with the state of the network. The ping(8) command makes use of one type of ICMP message.
Then there is a whole bunch of ''application-level'' protocols, built on top of TCP or UDP, which are what people use to do actual work: [SMTP], [HTTP], [RTSP], [SSH] etc. [DNS] is also technically an application-level protocol, even though most users would view it as a part of the infrastructure of the Internet.
Basically, IP is the protocol responsible for sending data between 2 machines, while TCP is responsible for ensuring that data in multiple packets gets there in the right order, and is responsible for re-transmitting lost packets.