PGP stands for "Pretty Good Privacy". An open-source version (that is compatible with PGP) is called GPG, for "GNU Privacy Guard". You can get GnuPG from its webpage; Debian/Ubuntu users can type apt-get install gnupg.

Below, we give examples of how to set up GPG ready for use on your system.

Creating And Managing Keys

Graphical programs to help out


There is a graphical interface to key management called Seahorse. It makes it easy to see who has signed whose keys, and you can edit/create keys as well as sign and encrypt/decrypt messages. It is still in development, and does not use protected memory (ie it is not setuid), so don't type your passphrase into it if others have access to your machine (and you are paranoid). There is an official Debian package (apt-get install seahorse).

GNU Privacy Assistant

This is another front-end to GPG, which is more complete and polished than SeaHorse. Debian users can simply apt-get install gpa.

Notes about keys

  • Keys have at least two parts -- a public key and a private key. Only the key creator should have access to the private key - often it is protected by a "passphrase" so that you need to know the pass phrase to unscamble the private key. This is used for example on a machine that other people might have access to.
  • There are different types of keys, using different algorithms. DSA can only be used for signing. ElGamal is used for encrypting. RSA is another encryption algorithm, and can be used for signing or for encrypting. Usually a GPG key will have the main public/private key for signing/verifying, and another pair as a sub-key for encryption/decryption. You are asked what type you want when you create a key (see below). The default is to create DSA and ElGamal keys so you can both sign and encrypt messages. If you create a sign-only key and later want to add another key so you can encrypt, you can do this interactively:
$ gpg --edit-key <keyid-or-email>
Secret key is available.
Command> addkey
Key is protected.
Enter passphrase:
Please select what kind of key you want:
Command> save

Don't forget to upload your key to a KeyServer again so everyone else can see this!

  • A 10 byte MD5 check-sum of the public key is called a "fingerprint" and is used to uniquely identify keys (in hexadecimal). You can refer to all the parts of a key with this ID. The last 4 bytes of the fingerprint can be used as a key ID in most places.

Here is an example:

$ gpg --list-keys --fingerprint jrm21
pub  1024D/D3F9478C 2002-09-17 John R. McPherson <>
     Key fingerprint = EAC5 0592 EA7C 6F22 0548  CE09 83B7 E09C D3F9 478C
sub  1024g/148FC512 2002-09-17
  1. The command lists all keys matching the string "jrm21", and prints out the keys' fingerprints.
  2. The public key is using 1024 bit DSA. (Remember that DSA is used for signing). This key's ID is the last 4 bytes of the fingerprint, D3F9478C.
  3. This key has a subkey, which uses 1024-bit ElGamal. This key is used for encrypting and decrypting. However, to encrypt something for this user, you can use the "main" key's ID - you do not need to refer to the subkey's ID when encrypting.

Creating a Key

Under Linux, you must first create a public key/private key pair. Assuming you have GPG installed, you can use the command gpg --gen-key to create a pair - you will have to answer a few easy questions.

Note: If you're generating your key on a remote FreeBSD box, it may not have enough entropy to generate the required amount of random data. To get around it add: rand_irqs="14" to your /etc/rc.conf and reboot, or: rndcontrol -q -s 14, which is not persistent.

This allows the system to get entropy from IRQ 14 which will be your IDE controller, so access your disk and you'll get enough entropy

Then you can find your key ID: gpg --list-keys

And submit it to a GPG KeyServer: $gpg --send-key --keyserver <your public key ID>

If you like, you can now register yourself as being interested in having other people come and sign your key at biglumber.

Finding Other Keys

To get a key by it's keyid you can use gpg --recv-key keyid.

You will need to tell gpg which keyserver to use. You can either add --keyserver <domain name> to every command, or add a line like keyserver to the ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf file (create it if it doesn't exist).

To get a key by email address you need to either use the web interfaces on the key servers ( or if you are running a recent version of gpg(1) (more recent than the one in Debian 3.0) you can use gpg --search-key email@address.

Also for recent versions of gpg(1) (1.2.1 and later) you can also do gpg --refresh-keysto download any new signatures for all of the keys in your keyring.

For example: Perry's gpg ID is

pub  1024D/2F33F144 2000-09-23 Perry Lorier (Local network) <perry@coders.tla>
    Key fingerprint = 0A5F E3C9 8CF7 7FB7 378D  3C1C 7008 11A7 2F33 F144

PerryLorier's key id is 2F33F144, so you do gpg --recv-key 2F33F144 and a few seconds later you have his GPG key. You need to use the --keyserver option if it has not already been set:
gpg --keyserver --recv-key 2F33F144

You should see a message like:

$ gpg --keyserver --recv-key 2F33F144
gpg: requesting key 2F33F144 from ...
gpg: key 2F33F144: public key imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1

You can double check by doing gpg --list-keys again.

If the full key is posted on a website, try gpg --import key.asc: for example, you can find Red Hat's public key on their website.

Here is what a full key looks like. Disclaimer: do NOT import this key off this page, as it may have been tampered with (being a public wiki):

Type bits/keyID Date User ID
pub  1024D/DB42A60E  1999-09-23 Red Hat, Inc. (
sub  2048g/961630A2  1999-09-23

Version: GnuPG v1.0.0 (GNU/Linux)
Comment: For info see


If you are using the WebOfTrust, you can import it off the website and it doesn't matter if someone has tampered with it because any tampering will get cause the CryptographicHash not to match and so it won't be trusted anyway.

General Notes

How do I delete/cancel a key?
gpg --gen-revoke <key-id>. Copy the text from this output somewhere very safe, because anyone can use this to revoke your PGP key.
How do I use a revocation cert once you've generated one?
gpg --import revoke.asc
gpg --send-key <key-id>
How do you change your primary uid?
In 1.0.7+ there is a "primary" command when you use --edit-key which makes the currently selected uid your primary uid. So, to change your UID, you do:
gpg --edit-key your@email.address
> list
the uid number you want eg:
> 1
> primary
> save

I spent ages trying to figure out what the parameter to "primary" was, when in fact it has none. Doh!

This is the same for deleting a uid with "deluid". You don't say deluid 2, you say

> 2
> deluid

Periodic Maintenance

gpg --rebuild-keydb-caches increases the speed of many operations for existing keyrings.

How to get all the keys of people who have signed your key

sig          21100060 2005-02-05  [User ID not found]

So, who are all these numbers that have signed my key?

gpg --with-colons --list-sigs <your-key-id> | \
cut -f 5 -d':' | xargs gpg --recv-key

How to verify files with gpg/pgp

(2003). After the famous compromise, the FSF changed their policy - instead of uploading package MD5 checksum to the ftp server, package maintainers now GPG-sign the packages. This makes it impossible for a cracker to modify a package without anyone noticing, since the cracker can't generate the signature (unless they managed to compromise or steal the person's private key).

(2002-10) In the last few months there have been several ftp servers exploited, and sources to programs are being replaced with ones that have a trojaned configure script. There have been some rather critical programs exploited, libpcap, openssh etc. The first few were easily noticable: the md5sum file no longer matched the archive. The hackers quickly got smart and replaced the md5sum files too. If you are going to release files, then you should consider creating a detached signature for people to verify.

gpg --armour --detach-sign foo.tar.bz2

this creates a .asc file to go with the tar.bz2. When you receive a file, and it's .asc file, you do

gpg --verify foo.tar.bz2.asc foo.tar.bz2

which should say something like "Good signature from someone". Your web of trust should be large enough to verify this key (if it's not you need to find more people who have keys to sign). You should also verify "someone" is someone you trust to release this tarball.

See also WhySignEmail.

"There is no indication that this key really belongs to the owner"

This error is the result of a breakdown of trust. There can be several issues: It can occur on your own keys if the trust database is deleted. The solution is to use:

 gpg --edit 0x012345678

and tell GPG that you trust yourself. It can also occur if you are trying to send encrypted email to someone whose key you haven't signed, the solution is to sign their key or use --trusted-key for this operation.

Recover a public key from the corresponding secret key

 gpg --export-secret-key 0x12345678 | gpgsplit --no-split --secret-to-public | gpg --import

Extend the lifetime of, or "unexpire", a key

Generating keys with expiry dates is good because it allows the keys to be flushed from keyservers and keyrings aftre a fixed length of time and limits the period revocation certificates have to be circulated. However, often it is advisable to extend the life of a key which is embedded in the web of trust.

This can be done using the command gpg --edit 0x12345678, and then the "expire" option. Some signatures have expiry dates within them which co-incide with the expiry date of the key. There is no way to extend these, except to get the signer to sign the updated key.

Ensuring compatibility with old versions of PGP/GnuPG:

A comprehensive table of what algorithms are supported by every version of PGP/GnuPG is available.

Getting new keys from the PGP Global Directory

The PGP Global Directory does not appear to generate new signatures use used as standard via the --refresh option. Here's a little script that will do this for every key on your keyring:

gpg --with-colons --list-sigs | awk -F: '/pub/{pub=$5;}/sig:::17:/{if ($5="9710B89BCA57AD7C") print pub}' | sort | uniq | awk '{printf "wget\n", $0;}' > cmds
source cmds
gpg --import DownloadKey?.event\?keyid\=0x*
gpg --with-colons --list-sigs | awk -F: '/pub/{pub=$5;}/sig:::17:/{if ($5="9710B89BCA57AD7C") print pub}' | sort | uniq | awk '{printf "gpg --send %s\n", $0;}' > cmds2
source cmds2

See also

Part of CategoryCryptography